# Index

**#**

** **

**A**

Abnormal behavior – Section 15.1.2; Section 15.2.2

Abolishing operations – Section 6.5.2.1

Absentmindedness – Section 13.3.3

Acceptance techniques – Section 6.5.3.4

Accommodation – Section 10.2.2.1

Achievement need – Section 8.5

Actor-observer bias – Section 12.1.4

Acute pain – Section 11.4

Adaptation – Section 10.2.2.1

Adaptation energy – Section 4.4.3

Adherence – Section 11.3

Adler – Section 9.2.2

Affect, types of – Section 2.1

Affect heuristic – Section 13.5.2

Affective forecasting – Section 1.3.3

Affective states – Section 2.1

Affiliation need – Section 8.2; Section 10.5.3.3; Section 12.3.1

Aggression – Section 10.3.3.2; Section 10.4.3.4

Alarm reaction – Section 4.4.3

Algorithms – Section 13.5.1

Allport – Section 7.2.3.1

Altruism – Section 12.4.4.1; Section 15.1.5

Amnesia – Section 13.3.3

Amygdala – Section 2.3.2

Animistic thinking – Section 10.3.2.1

Antecedents – Section 6.1

Apostasy – Section 9.3.1

Applied science – Section 6.1

Appraisal, and emotion – Section 2.2.4; Section 4.4.4

Archetypes – Section 9.2.1

Aristotle – Section 1.4.1

Arousal theory of motivation – Section 1.4.2.1

Asch, Solomon – Section 15.1.7

Assimilation – Section 10.2.2.1

Associative learning – Section 13.6.1

Attachment, and religion – Section 9.6.2

Attention – Section 13.2

Attitudes – Section 12.2.1

Components of – Section 12.2.2

Sources of – Section 12.2.3

Attribution theory – Section 12.1.1

Attraction – Section 12.3.1

Factors affecting – Section 12.3.2

Autonomy need – Section 8.6; Section 10.5.3.2

Autonomy vs. shame and doubt – Section 10.3.1.3

Availability heuristic – Section 13.5.2

Avoidance behavior – Section 1.3.3

** **

**B**

Babbling – Section 10.2.2.3

Bandura, Albert – Section 13.6.4.2

Base rate fallacy – Section 13.5.2

Baseline phase – Section 6.4.3

Basic evils – Section 9.2.2

Basic science – Section 6.1

Behavior – Section 6.1

Behavioral definition – Section 6.3.1

Bentham – Section 1.4.1

Bias – Section 13.3.3

Biological preparedness – Section 1.5.2.1

Bipolar disorders – Section 2.7.2

Blocking – Section 13.3.3

Broaden-and-build model – Section 2.6

Buffering hypothesis – Section 4.5.1

**C**

Calories – Section 5.2

CAMs – Section 11.5

Cannon-Bard theory of emotion – Section 2.5.1

Case studies – Section 1.6.2.2

Cattell – Section 7.2.3.2

Central executive – Section 13.2

Centration – Section 10.3.2.1

Cephalocaudal principle– Section 10.1.4

Change – Section 4.2.1.2

Stages of – Section 6.2

Change blindness – Section 13.2

Choice overload phenomenon – Section 5.2

Choices – Section 1.3.2

Chronic pain – Section 11.4

Chunking – Section 13.3.2.2

Circadian rhythms – Section 14.1.3

Cognition – Section 6.5.3.4

Cognition need – Section 8.4

Cognitive behavioral therapy – Section 6.5.3.4

Cognitive closure need – Section 8.8

Cognitive coping skills training – Section 6.5.3.4

Cognitive dissonance – Section 12.2.5

Cognitive theory of motivation – Section 1.4.2.3

Collective unconscious – Section 9.2.1

Compensation hypothesis – Section 9.6.2

Competence – Section 1.1

Competence need – Section 8.7

Competing behavior – Section 6.3.1

Competition – Section 12.4.4.1

Compliance – Section 15.1.8

Compromise – Section 4.3

Concrete operations – Section 10.4.2.1

Conditioning – Section 13.6.1

Confirmation bias – Section 13.5.2

Conflict – Section 4.2.1.1

Conformity – Section 15.1.7

Confrontation – Section 4.3

Consequences – Section 6.1

Conservation – Section 10.3.2.1

Consolidation – Section 13.3.2.3

Cooperation – Section 12.4.4.1

Coping, and religion – Section 9.5

Correlational research – Section 1.6.2.4

Correspondence inference theory – Section 12.1.2

Costs, of motivated behavior – Section 5.2

Counterconditioning – Section 1.5.2.1

Covariation theory – Section 12.1.3

Covert behavior – Section 6.1

Creativity – Section 13.4

Criterion – Section 6.3.2

Critical thinking – Section 1.6.1

Cyberloafing – Section 15.2.4

Cynicism – Section 1.4.1

** **

**D**

Daily hassles – Section 4.2.1.1

Darwin – Section 1.5.1

Death, and religion – Section 9.7

Death and dying, stages of – Section 10.6.3.3

Decenter – Section 10.4.2.1

Deconversion – Section 9.3.1

Deductive reasoning – Section 13.5.1

Defense mechanisms – Section 7.2.1.1

Deferred imitation – Section 10.2.2.1

Deficit, behavioral – Section 6.1

Deindividuation – Section 15.2.7

Demand – Section 4.1; Section 4.2.1

Depressive disorders – Section 2.7.3

Depth perception – Section 10.2.1.3

Desensitization – Section 6.5.3.2

Development

Principles of – Section 10.1.4

Types of – Section 10.1.3

Developmental periods – Section 10.1.2

Developmental psychology, defined – Section 10.1.1

Dialectical reasoning – Section 10.6.2.1

Differential reinforcement – Section 6.5.4.1

Dimensions of behavior – Section 6.1

Discounting principle – Section 12.1.3

Discrimination – Section 15.2.5

Discriminative stimuli – Section 6.5.2.1

Disease – Section 11.2

Display rules – Section 2.4.1

Distal goals – Section 3.3.1.2

Distancing – Section 4.5.3

Distraction – Section 13.2

Distressors – Section 4.2.1.2

Divergent thinking – Section 13.4

Divided attention – Section 13.2

Downward social comparison – Section 10.4.3.2

Drive reduction model – Section 1.2.2.2

Drive reduction theory of motivation – Section 1.4.2.4

Drives – Section 1.2; Section 1.2.2.2

Duchenne smiles – Section 2.3.2

** **

**E**

Eating disorders – Section 10.5.1.2

Ego – Section 9.2.1

Ego integrity vs. despair – Section 10.6.3.3

Egocentrism – Section 10.3.2.1

Emotion

Characteristics of – Section 2.2

Defined – Section 2.1

Emotion focused coping – Section 4.1; Section 4.5

Emotional disclosure – Section 4.5.4

Emotional intelligence – Section 2.8

Emphasizing the positive – Section 4.5.3

Enactive learning – Section 13.6.4.1

Encoding – Section 13.3.2.3

Energy, types of – Section 1.1

Epicureanism – Section 1.4.1

Episodic memory – Section 13.3.2.3

Epistemology – Section 1.4.1

Erikson, stages of personality development – Section 7.2.1.2

Escape behavior – Section 1.3.2

Establishing operations – Section 6.5.2.1

Ethics – Section 1.4.1

Eugenics – Section 1.5.1

Eustressors – Section 4.2.1.2

Evaluating the plan – Section 6.7

Evolutionary history – Section 1.3.1

Evolutionary psychology – Section 12.3.3

Excess, behavioral – Section 6.1

Exercise – Section 15.1.1

Exhaustion – Section 4.4.3

Expectancy-value theory – Section 1.4.2.3; Section 3.3.3

Experimentation – Section 1.6.1

Experiments – Section 1.6.2.5

Explicit memory – Section 13.3.2.3

Extinction (and burst) – Section 13.6.3.5

Extreme stressors – Section 4.2.1.2

Extrinsic religious orientation – Section 9.1.4

Eysenck – Section 7.2.3.3

** **

**F**

Facial-feedback hypothesis – Section 2.4.2

Fading – Section 6.5.2.2

Faith – Section 9.2

False consensus effect – Section 12.1.4

False uniqueness effect – Section 12.1.4

Fast mapping – Section 10.3.2.2

Fear – Section 1.5.2.1

Fine motor skills – Section 10.2.1.4

Five factor model – Section 7.2.3.4

Flooding – Section 6.5.3.2

Focalism – Section 1.3.3

Forgiveness – Section 15.1.6

Formal operations – Section 10.5.2.1

Freud – Section 1.4.2.5; Section 7.2.1.1

Frustration – Section 4.2.1.1

Functional assessment – Section 6.4.2

Functional fixedness – Section 13.4

Fundamental attribution error – Section 12.1.4

** **

** **

**G**

Galton – Section 1.5.1

Gaps – Section 1.6.1

General adaptation syndrome – Section 4.4.3

Generativity vs. stagnation – Section 10.6.3.2

Gestalt principles of perceptual organization – Section 13.1

Gestalt psychology – Section 13.4

Glucose – Section 5.2

Goals – Section 1.3.2; Module 3

Achievement – Section 3.3.1

Commitment – Section 3.2.4

Difficulty – Section 3.2.1

Failure – Section 3.3.2

Level – Section 3.2.2

Origins of – Section 3.1.2

Planning – Section 3.3.1.2

Specificity – Section 3.2.3

Goal setting – Section 6.3.2

Grit – Section 5.3

Gross motor skills – Section 10.2.1.4

Groups, types of – Section 1.6.2.5

** **

**H**

Habit behaviors – Section 6.5.3.3

Habit reversal procedure – Section 6.5.3.3

Habituation – Section 13.6.1

Halo effect – Section 12.3.2

Health – Section 11.1

Helping behavior – Section 15.1.5

Hemingway effect – Section 3.3.3

Heuristics – Section 13.5.2

Hierarchical integration – Section 10.1.4

Hindsight bias – Section 13.5.2

Hobbes – Section 1.4.1

Holophrases – Section 10.2.2.3

Homeostasis – Section 1.2.2.2; Section 14.1.1

Horney – Section 9.2.2

Hull – Section 8.1.2

Humanistic perspective – Section 7.2.2

Hunger – Section 14.1.4

Hypothalamus – Section 14.1.4

Hypothesis – Section 1.6.1

** **

** **

**I**

Identity crisis – Section 10.5.3.1

Identity vs. role confusion – Section 10.5.3.1

Inattentional blindness – Section 13.2

Individualism – Section 12.4.4.1

Illness – Section 11.2

Illusory correlation – Section 13.5.2

Imaginary audience – Section 10.5.2.2

Immune neglect – Section 1.3.3

Impact bias – Section 1.3.3

Implicit attitude – Section 15.2.5

Implicit memory – Section 13.3.2.3

Incentive theory of motivation – Section 1.4.2.2

Incentives – Section 1.1

Independence of systems – Section 10.1.4

Inductive reasoning – Section 13.5.1

Industry vs. inferiority – Section 10.4.3.1

Ingroup/outgroup bias – Section 15.2.5

Insight learning – Section 13.4

Instinct – Section 1.4.2.5

Instinct theory of motivation – Section 1.4.2.5

Instrumental – Section 1.1

Intensity, and emotion – Section 2.2.3

Interference – Section 13.3.3

Initiative vs. guilt – Section 10.3.3.1

Intimacy vs. isolation – Section 10.6.3.1; Module 12.3.2

Intrinsic religious orientation – Section 9.1.4

** **

**J**

James – Section 1.4.2.5

James-Lange theory of emotion – Section 2.5.1

Just world hypothesis – Section 12.1.4

** **

**K**

Knowledge – Section 1.1

Kohlberg – Section 9.4.2

** **

**L**

Lamarck – Section 1.5.1

Lapse – Section 6.8.2

Leaders, and overconsumption – Section 12.4.5.1

Learning – Section 13.6.1

Least effort, principle of – Section 5.4

Literature review – Section 1.6.1

Load theory of attention – Section 13.2

Locus of control – Section 4.5.2

Logic – Section 1.4.1

Long-term memory – Section 13.3.2.3

Love – Section 15.1.3

Lyell – Section 1.5.1

** **

**M**

Maintenance phase – Section 6.8.1

Malthus – Section 1.5.1

Maslow – Section 1.2.2.1; Section 8.1.1.; Section 9.2.4

Mate selection – Section 12.3.3

Meaning need – Section 8.9

Measurement – Section 1.6.1

Memory – Section 10.4.2.3; Section 10.6.2.2; Section 13.3

Errors – Section 13.3.3

Stages of – Section 13.3.2

Mental disorders – Section 2.7

Mental set – Section 13.5.2

Metaphysics – Section 1.4.1

Microexpressions – Section 2.4.2

Midlife crisis – Section 10.6.3.2

Midlife transition – Section 10.6.3.2

Mindfulness – Section 4.5.4

Misattribution – Section 13.3.3

Mob behavior – Section 15.2.7

Modeling – Section 6.5.3.2

Mood – Section 2.1

Mood disorders – Section 2.7

Moral attitudes, and religion – Section 9.4.1

Moral behavior, and religion – Section 9.4.3

Moral development – Section 9.4.2

Mother, universal preference for – Section 1.5.2.2

Motherese – Section 10.2.2.3

Motivation, defined – Section 1.1

Motive – Section 1.1

Motives, universal – Section 1.5.2

Multimethod research – Section 1.6.2.6

Music – Section 1.5.2.2

** **

**N**

Natural selection – Section 1.5.1

Nature-nurture debate – Section 2.4.1

Near-death experiences – Section 9.7.3

Need – Section 1.2

Needs, hierarchy of – Section 1.2.2.1

Negative feedback loop – Section 1.2.2.2

Nervous system – Section 2.3

Neurons – Section 10.2.1.1

Nonassociative learning – Section 13.6.1

non-Duchenne smiles – Section 2.3.2

Normal behavior – Section 15.1.2

** **

**O**

Obedience – Section 15.2.8

Obesity – Section 10.4.1

Object permanence – Section 10.2.2.1

Observation – Section 1.6.1; Section 1.6.2.1

Observational learning – Section 13.6.4.1

Operant conditioning – Section 13.6.3

Opportunity costs – Section 5.2

Orienting response – Section 13.6.1

Outgroup homogeneity – Section 15.2.5

Overt behavior – Section 6.1

** **

** **

**P**

Pain management – Section 11.4

Parenting styles – Section 9.6.1

Pavlov – Section 13.6.2

Perceived self-interest – Section 15.1.5

Perception – Section 1.4.2.3; Section 13.1

Perceptual load – Section 13.2

Perceptual set – Section 2.1; Section 13.1

Persistence – Section 13.3.3

Personal fable – Section 10.5.2.2

Personal history – Section 1.3.1

Personal unconscious – Section 9.2.1

Personality – Module 7

Characteristics of – Section 7.1.2

Disorders of – Section 7.4

Measurement of – Section 7.1.3

Stages of personality development, according to Freud – Section 7.2.1.1

Personality traits – Section 7.1.1

Persuasion – Section 12.2.4

Philosophy – Section 1.4.1

Physical changes, during

Adolescence – Section 10.5.1

Adulthood – Section 10.6.1

Infancy – Section 10.2.1

Middle childhood – Section 10.4.1

Preschool years – Section 10.3.1

Physical energy costs – Section 5.2

Plato – Section 1.4.1

Play – Section 10.3.1.2

Positive emotion, as adaptive – Section 2.6

Positive psychology – Section 15.1.2

Postformal thought – Section 10.6.2.1

Power need – Section 8.3

Prayer – Section 9.5.3

Prejudice – Section 15.2.5

Prelinguistic communication – Section 10.2.2.3

Preoperational stage – Section 10.3.2.1

Pressure – Section 4.2.1.1

Primary aging – Section 10.1.1

Primary appraisal – Section 4.4.4

Primary reinforcers/punishers – Section 13.6.3.2

Prisoner’s Dilemma Game – Section 12.4.1.1

Problem focused coping – Section 4.1; Section 4.3

Problems – Section 13.4

Procedural memory – Section 13.3.2.3

Processing capacity – Section 13.2

Prompt delay – Section 6.5.2.2

Prompt fading – Section 6.5.2.2

Prompting – Section 6.5.2.2

Prosocial behavior – Section 9.7.2.6; Section 10.3.3.3

Proximal goals – Section 3.3.1.2

Proximodistal principle– Section 10.1.4

Psychology, defined – Section 1.6.1

Psychological energy costs – Section 5.2

Psychosomatic disorders – Section 4.4.3

Puberty – Section 10.5.1.1

Public goods dilemma – Section 12.4.1.1

Pull – Section 1.2; Section 1.2.3

Punishers, effectiveness of – Section 13.6.3.3

Punishment – Section 6.5.4.3; Section 13.6.3.1

Push – Section 1.2

** **

**Q**

Quest orientation – Section 9.1.4

** **

**R**

Random assignment – Section 1.6.2.5

Reappraisal – Section 2.1; Section 4.4.4

Reasoning – Section 13.5

Types of – Section 13.5.1

Errors in – Section 13.5.2

Receptor cells – Section 13.1

Reciprocal altruism – Section 10.3.3.3; Section 15.1.5

Reflexes – Section 10.2.1.2

Reinforcement – Section 13.6.3.1

Reinforcement schedule – Section 13.6.3.4

Reinforcers, effectiveness of – Section 13.6.3.3

Relapse – Section 6.8.2

Religion – Section 9.1.2

And nature – Section 9.2.6

And nurture – Section 9.2.7

And seeing a doctor – Section 11.2

Religious belief – Section 9.1.1

Dimensions of – Section 9.1.3

And TMT – Section 9.7.2.7

Religious conversion – Section 9.3.1

Religious deconversion – Section 9.3.1

Religious orientation – Section 9.1.4

Relaxation training – Section 4.5.4; Section 6.5.3.2

Repetition blindness – Section 13.2

Replication – Section 1.6.1

Repressed – Section 1.4.2.5

Research design – Section 1.6.1

Resistance – Section 4.4.3

Resource dilemma – Section 12.4.1.1

Resources – Section 4.1; Section 4.2.2; Section 5.3

Respondent conditioning – Section 13.6.2

Response costs – Section 5.2

Retrieval, of memories – Section 13.3.2.3

Reversibility – Section 10.3.2.1

Rogers, Carl – Section 7.2.2

** **

**S**

Satiety – Section 14.1.4

Schachter-Singer two-factor theory of emotion – Section 2.5.1

Schedules of reinforcement – Section 13.6.3.4

Schemas – Section 10.2.2.1

Scientific method – Section 1.6.1

Seasons of life – Section 10.6.3.2

Secondary aging – Section 10.1.1

Secondary appraisal – Section 4.4.4

Secondary reinforcers/punishers – Section 13.6.3.2

Selective attention – Section 13.2

Self-blame – Section 4.5.3

Self-concept – Section 10.4.3.2

Self-disclosure – Section 12.3.2

Self-efficacy – Section 3.1.2; Section 6.2.2

Self-imposed stressors – Section 4.2.1.2

Self-instructions – Section 6.5.2.3

Self-isolation – Section 4.5.3

Self-modification – Section 6.1

Self-monitoring – Section 6.4.1

Self-serving bias – Section 12.1.4

Selye, Hans – Section 4.4.1

Semantic memory – Section 13.3.2.3

Sensation – Section 13.1

Sensitization – Section 13.6.1

Sensorimotor stage – Section 10.2.2.1

Sensory memory – Section 13.3.2.1

Serial position effect – Section 13.3.2.3

Sexual behavior/Sex – Section 14.1.6

Shaping – Section 6.5.3.1

Short-term memory – Section 13.3.2.2

Sleep – Section 14.1.3

Smiling – Section 10.3.1.2

Smoking – Section 15.2.1

Snowball effect – Section 15.2.7

Sociability – Section 10.3.1.2

Social comparison – Section 10.4.3.2

Social Darwinism – Section 1.5.1

Social dilemmas – Section 12.4

Classes of – Section 12.4.1.1

Social facilitation – Section 15.1.4

Social identity theory – Section 12.4.3

Social loafing – Section 15.2.4

Social norms – Section 15.2.2

Social referencing – Section 10.3.1.2

Social value orientation – Section 12.4.4

Socrates – Section 1.4.1

Spirituality – Section 9.1.2

Spontaneous recovery – Section 13.6.3.5

Statistics – Section 1.6.1

Stereotype threat – Section 15.2.5

Stigma – Section 11.2

Stoicism – Section 1.4.1

Storage, of memories – Section 13.3.2.3

Stress – Module 4; Section 4.4

And Seeing a Doctor – Section 11.2

Definition of – Section 4.1

Disorders of – Section 4.4.5

Effects of – Section 4.4.5

Model of – Section 4.1

Stress inoculation – Section 4.5.4

Stressors – Section 4.2.1.2

Stigma, of mental disorders – Section 15.2.6

Strain – Section 4.1; Section 4.2.3

Stranger anxiety – Section 10.3.1.2

Substance abuse – Section 14.2

Successful aging – Section 10.6.3.3

Surveys – Section 1.6.2.3

Survival, and religion – Section 9.2.5

Syllogisms – Section 13.5.1

Synapses – Section 10.2.1.1

Synaptic pruning – Section 10.2.1.1

Synaptogenesis – Section 10.2.1.1

** **

**T**

Telegraphic speech – Section 10.2.2.3

Temperament – Section 7.1.1

Tension reduction – Section 4.5.3

Terror Management Theory (TMT) – Section 9.7.2

Theory – Section 1.6.1

Thermoregulation – Section 14.1.2

Thirst – Section 14.1.5

Time, and motivation – Section 1.3

Time costs – Section 5.2

Token economy – Section 6.5.4.2

Trait-environment correlation/interaction – Section 7.3

Trait theory – Section 7.2.3

Transduction – Section 13.1

Transience – Section 13.3.3

Treatment phase – Section 6.6

Triangular theory of love – Section 15.1.3

Trust vs. mistrust – Section 10.3.1.3

** **

**U**

Uncertainty – Section 9.2.3; Section 12.4.4

Unconscious motivation – Section 1.4.2.5

Unmotivated, defined – Section 1.1

** **

**V**

Valence – Section 3.3.1.5

Value – Section 3.1.1

Values – Section 15.3

Variables, types of – Section 1.6.2.5

** **

**W**

Watson – Section 1.4.2.5; Section 2.1

Wellness – Section 11.1

Wishful thinking – Section 4.5.3

Withdrawal – Section 4.3

Working memory – Section 13.3.2.2

Worldview defense – Section 9.7.2.3

** **

**X**

** **

**Y**

** **

**Z**

Zeigarnik effect – Section 3.3.3

** **