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Record of Changes

This textbook is an adaptation of one written by Dr. Alexis Bridley and Dr. Lee W. Daffin Jr. (Washington State University, Fresno) under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. The original text is available here: https://opentext.wsu.edu/abnormal-psych/

A detailed list of changes to the original version follows:

Changes Made Throughout

  • Changed the theme of the book to Clarke
  • Made all first and second level headings formal headings (formatting for accessibility purposes)
  • Broke out large sections into individual sub-sections (1.1, 1.2, 1.3 now appear in different sections) to make sections appear shorter and more digestible
  • Replaced all noun labels (e.g., schizophrenic, depressive) with less stigmatizing “person-first” language (e.g., individual with schizophrenia)
  • Replaced term patient with client or individual throughout
  • Made all disorder names lower case
  • Replaced term Module with Chapter throughout
  • Basic editing throughout

Chapter 1

  • Removed discussion of positive psychology
  • Added description of impairment to the section describing Distress (since most DSM criteria include distress or impairment) in section 1.1.2
  • Elaborated on the section on Dangerousness (1.1.2) to reduce fear/stigma
  • Created a new heading and sub-section for the description of the cost of mental illness to society (1.1.3. What is the Cost of Mental Illness to Society?)
  • Moved the section on Types of Mental Health Professionals (previously 1.6.1) to section 1.1 (now sub-section 1.1.5).
    • o Removed clergy from the table 1
  • Moved the section on Prescription Rights for Psychologist (which previously followed History) to follow the section on Types of Mental Health Professionals (now sub-section 1.1.5.1)
  • Created a sub-section header for 1.2. [Section 1.2.1. Classification and Definitions]
  • Removed the term acute course from 1.2 since this is later described as a time-limited course
  • Streamlined the section on The Stigma of Mental Health and moved it (previously 1.3) so it is now a sub-section of section 1.2. Classifying Mental Disorders (subsection 1.2.2)
  • Moved the end of section 1.4 History of Mental Illness that focused on contemporary issues (sub-section 1.4.7) to Chapters 2 and 3
  • Changed Francis Pinel to Phillippe Pinel (Moral Treatment Movement)
  • Removed the long quote from the end of the section on the Reform Movement due to copyright concerns.
  • Moved section 2.3.1 Psychodynamic Theory to end of Chapter 1 (History)
    • o Moved the heading “The development of personality” to before the description of libido, eros and thantos
    • o Added another example of projection
  • Removed section 1.5 entirely (Research Methods in Psychology)
  • Removed sections 1.6.2 (Professional Societies and Journals)
  • Modified the chapter recap to reflect these changes

Chapter 2

  • Changed Chapter title to Contemporary Models of Abnormal Psychology
  • Removed term Paranoid Schizophrenia since this is an outdated term
  • Deleted Figure 2.1
  • Replaced Figure 2.2 (now 2.1) with open access figure of the structure of the nervous system
  • Replaced Figure 2.3 (now 2.2) with an open-access figure of a neuron
  • Removed Figure 2.4 as it was poor quality (low resolution)
  • Replaced Figure 2.5 (now 2.3) with an open-access figure with higher resolution
  • Removed quote from WebMD (section 2.2.2.1) and replaced with my own material
  • Added description of the diathesis-stress model
  • Added image of the hormone systems and elaborated on the discussion of the thyroid to include hypo and hyperthyroidism which produce symptoms of depression and mania respectively.
  • Added description and image of HPA axis to section 2.2.2.2 (Hormonal Imbalances)
  • Removed unreferenced quotes from the section on anti-anxiety medications and antipsychotic medications and paraphrased important material in my own words
  • Moved section 2.3.1 Psychodynamic Theory to end of Chapter 1 (History)
    • o Moved the heading “The development of personality” to before the description of libido, eros and thantos.
    • o Added another example of projection
  • Changed term Response Conditioning to Classical Conditioning
  • Replaced Classical Conditioning figure with open access figure
  • Removed Little Albert figure
  • Removed Figure 2.8 (Peter/Jones, Fear Extinction)
  • Deleted Properties of Respondent Conditioning (too much detail)
  • Removed sections on primary and secondary reinforcers, reinforcement schedules, properties of operant conditioning (too much detail).
  • Replaced Bobo doll image with open access image
  • Deleted sections 2.3.3.2 and 2.3.3.3 on schemas and attribution errors (too much detail)
  • Section 2.4.2 Gender Factors – Inaccuracy corrected – OCD has an earlier age of onset in boys, not girls

Chapter 3

  • Section 3.1.3.1 was streamlined and moved to section 3.1.3.6 (now 3.1.3.5) on behavioral assessment as the limitations described here primarily refer to limitations of behavioral assessment
  • Added “and Other Psychotic Disorders” to Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders“ in Table 3.1
  • Added “and Related Disorders” to Obsessive-Compulsive in Table 3.1
  • Added “and Related Disorders” to Somatic Symptom in Table 3.1

Chapter 4

  • Moved anxiety disorders to Chapter 4
  • Changed organization so that the description, epidemiology, comorbidity, and treatment of each disorder appear together for each disorder
    • o Section 4.1 is now on Panic Disorder and includes epidemiology, comorbidity, and treatment of Panic Disorder, section 4.2 focuses on these components for GAD, section 4.3 on Specific Phobia, 4.4 on Social Anxiety Disorder, and 4.5 on Agoraphobia
    • o Section 4.6 is on epidemiology for all disorders due to the overlap here and non-specific nature of many of the causes.

Chapter 5

  • Moved OCD and related disorders to Chapter 5
  • Removed sections on hoarding disorder
  • Changed organization so that the clinical description, epidemiology, comorbidity, etiology, and treatment of each disorder appear together for each disorder
    • o Section 5.1 is now on OCD and includes the clinical description, epidemiology, comorbidity, etiology, and treatment of OCD, section 5.2 focuses on these components for BDD
  • Changed statement that to be diagnosed with OCD a person must have obsessions and compulsions to obsessions or compulsions which is more consistent with the DSM

Chapter 6

  • Moved mood disorders to Chapter 6
  • Divided section on clinical description into two sections on symptoms of depression (6.1.1) and types of depressive disorders (6.1.2).
  • Changed organization so that the description, epidemiology, comorbidity, etiology, and treatment of each class of disorders appear together for each disorder
    • o Section 6.1 is now on depressive disorders and includes the clinical description, epidemiology, comorbidity, etiology, and treatment of mood disorders, section 6.2 focuses on these components for bipolar disorders
  • Added terms initial insomnia, middle insomnia, and terminal insomnia to the section on insomnia
  • Added description of hypomanic episode and distinguishing characteristics of manic and hypomanic episodes
  • Removed the statement that a depressive episode is required to diagnose either bipolar I or bipolar II disorder as it is only required to diagnose bipolar I (a single manic episode is sufficient to diagnose bipolar I disorder)
  • Added section on psychological contributions to bipolar disorder

Chapter 7

  • Moved schizophrenia spectrum disorders chapter to Chapter 7
  • Added section on brief psychotic disorder
  • Changed discussion of positive vs negative symptoms to positive, disorganized, and negative
  • Removed apathy from the list of negative symptoms (not included in DSM)
  • Added bipolar type and depressive type to the description of schizoaffective disorder
  • Added to the list of specifiers for delusional disorder and changed term modifier to specifier

Chapter 8

  • Moved personality disorders to Chapter 8
  • Reorganized chapter according to clusters. Section 8.1 is now an overview of the three clusters and 10 PDs, 8.2 now covers Cluster A disorders (including clinical presentation, epidemiology, and treatment), 8.3 now covers Cluster B disorders (including clinical presentation, epidemiology, and treatment), 8.4 now covers Cluster C disorders (including clinical presentation, etiology, and treatment), 8.5 covers comorbidities and etiology for all three clusters.
  • Elaborated on the general criteria required to diagnose any personality disorder (including impairment and distress, presence since adolescence or early adulthood) and added a distinction between personality traits and disorders.

Remaining Chapters

  • Made all remaining chapters invisible (Dissociative Disorders, Trauma-and Stressor-Related Disorders, Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders, Eating Disorders, Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders, Neurocognitive Disorders, Contemporary Issues in Psychopathology)

License

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Record of Changes by Washington State University is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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